Electric motors are used in almost every mechanical movement done around you. In just about every sector of the industry, from heavy industry to the service sector, electric motors play a critical role. You’ll find them in your house as well as in most electric appliances. If you look around your house, you’ll find that it is filled with electric motors.
Every motor has two essential parts namely the field winding & the armature winding. A field winding is used to create a fixed magnetic field and an armature winding looks like a conductor placed within the magnetic field. Since magnetic fields are produced by armatures, the armature winding uses energy to produce an adequate torque for rotation. The motor can be classified based on its connections, which means how the two coils get wired together.
There are a variety of types of Electric motors available in the market, and these can be selected based on voltage, operation, and applications.
Types of motors
The different applications of electric motors are classified into three categories: AC motors, DC motors, and special purpose motors.
1) DC MOTORS
The different types of dc motors are commonly classified as series wound, shunt wound, PMDC and compound wound.
DC SHUNT MOTOR: DC shunt motor works on DC and the windings of this electric motor like armature windings and field windings are linked in parallel.
This kind of motor is also called a shunt wound DC motor, where the winding type is known as a shunt winding.
SEPARATELY EXCITED MOTOR: In a separately excited motor, the connection of stator and rotor can be done using a different power supply. This enables the motor to be controlled from the shunt and its windings can be strengthened to generate flux.
DC SERIES MOTOR: In a DC series motor, each rotor winding is connected in series. According to a simple law of electromagnetism, the operation principle of this motor is as follows: whenever a magnetic field can be formed around a conductor and interacts with an external field to produce rotation.
PMDC: Permanent Magnet DC motor is one kind of DC motor which can be built with a permanent magnet to make the magnetic field necessary for the electric motor operation.
DC COMPOUND MOTOR: A DC compound motor is a hybrid component of shunt and series motors. In this type of motor, the fields from both of these motors are present. This type of electric motor has a compound connection between its stator and rotor windings. The shunt winding can be designed with multiple windings, and these multiple windings can be connected in parallel to get the full input voltage.
2) AC MOTOR
There are 3 types of ac motors: synchronous motor, asynchronous motor and induction motor.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR : The working of synchronous motors depends primarily on the 3-phase supply. The field current in the stator rotates in a stable speed based on the AC frequency. As well as the direction of rotation of the rotor depends on the similar speed of the stator current. The higher the accuracy level, the more suitable these motors are for automation and robotics.
INDUCTION MOTOR: The motor running at an asynchronous speed is known as an induction motor, and it’s alternately known as an asynchronous motor. An induction motor uses electromagnetic induction for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. The rotor construction of these motors is based on two different designs, the squirrel cage and phase wound.
3) SPECIAL PURPOSE MOTOR
The types of special purpose motors include linear induction motor and stepper motor.
STEPPER MOTOR: The stepper motor is a type of motor that offers step angle revolution, which is an alternative to stable revolution. In general, for any rotor, the whole revolution angle is 180 degrees. Stepper motors are widely used in plotters, circuit fabrication, process control tools, and other devices.
BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR: Brushless DC motors are good for applications which demand high performance within a limited space, better than the brushed DC and this is why they were first developed. These motors are less effective when compared with AC models. To facilitate the magnetic process within the lack of a commutator and a slip ring, an embedded controller is used.
HYSTERESIS MOTOR: The way the hysteresis motor works is extremely unique. This motor’s rotor can generate the task with the effect of eddy currents and hysteresis. These motors give a stable and smooth process, similar to other synchronous motors.
RELUCTANCE MOTOR: A reluctance motor is a type of single-phase synchronous motor, and this construction is quite similar with induction motor like cage type. The rotor of the motor is like a squirrel cage, and the stator includes sets of windings such as auxiliary and main windings. At the beginning of the motor’s operation, auxiliary winding is very useful. It offers stable speed and level operation. These motors are commonly used in synchronization applications which include signal generators, recorders, etc.
UNIVERSAL MOTOR: This is a special kind of motor that works on single AC supply or DC supply. Universal motors have two windings: a field winding and an armature winding. They’re connected in series, so during a start their highest current flows through the field windings, causing the greatest torque. These motors are designed for high-speed operation above 3500 rpm. They utilize alternating current at low-speed and direct current of similar voltage.
There are different kinds of motors, and they’re all flexible. The purpose of the motor is to be used in motion-control systems when you need them. The motor supports the use and system act in general.
Most of the gadgets in our homes have AC motors, but DC motors are more frequent in devices that use batteries
Starting in the kitchen, you will find motors in:
- The refrigerator – Two or three in fact: one for the compressor, one for the fan inside the refrigerator, as well as one in the icemaker
- The blender
- The Microwave Oven
In the utility room, there is an electric motor in:
- The Vacuum cleaner
- The washer
- The Dryer
Even in the bathroom, there’s a motor in:
- The electric toothbrush
- The hair dryer
- The electric razor
Your car is loaded with electric motors:
- Fans for the heater and the radiator
- Windshield wipers
here are motors in all sorts of other places:
- The garage door opener
Almost everything that moves uses an electric motor to accomplish its movement.
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